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Gear Materials

The materials used for the manufacture of gears depends upon the strength and service conditions like wear, noise etc. The gears may be manufactured from metallic or non-metallic materials. The metallic gears with cut teeth are commercially obtainable in cast iron, steel and bronze. The non-metallic materials like wood, rawhide, compressed paper and synthetic resins like nylon are used for gears, especially for reducing noise.

The cast iron is widely used for the manufacture of gears due to its good wearing properties, excellent machinability and ease of producing complicated shapes by casting method. The cast iron gears with cut teeth may be employed, where smooth action is not important.

The steel is used for high strength gears and steel may be plain carbon steel or alloy steel. The steel gears are usually heat treated in order to combine properly the toughness and tooth hardness.

The phosphor bronze is widely used for worms gears in order to reduce wear of the worms which will be excessive with cast iron or steel.

 

The following table shows the properties of commonly used gear materials.

Materials Condition Brinell Hardness
Number
Minimum Tensile Strength
(kglcm2)
Malleable cast iron

a) White heart castings, Grade B

b) Black heart castings, Grade B


---

---


217 max.

149 max.


2800

3200
Cast Iron

a) Grade 20

b) Grade 25

c) Grade 35

d) Grade 35

Cast steel


As cast

As cast

As cast

Heat treated

---


179 min.

197 min.

207 min.

300 min.

145


2,002

2,500

2,500

3,500

5,500
Carbon steel

a) 0.3% carbon
b) 0.3% carbon

c) 0.4% carbon
d) 0.4% carbon

e) 0.55% carbon
f) 0.55% carbon


Normalised
Hardened and tempered

Normalised
Hardened and tempered

Normalised
Hardened and tempered


143
152

152
179

201
223


5,000
6,000

5,800
6,000

7,200
7,000
Carbon chromium steel

a) 0.4% carbon

b) 0.55% carbon


Hardened and tempered

Hardened and tempered


229

225


8,000

9,000
Carbon manganese steel

a) 0.27% carbon

b) 0.37% carbon


Hardened and tempered

Hardened and tempered


170

201


6,000

7,000
Manganese molybdenum steel

a) 35 Mn 2 Mo 28

b) 35 Mn 2 Mo 45


Hardened and tempered

Hardened and tempered


201

229


7,000

8,000
Chromium molybdenum steel

a) 40 Cr 1 Mo 28
b) 40 Cr 1 Mo 60

Nickel steel

40 Ni 3

Nickel chromium steel

30 Ni 4 Cr 1

Nickel chromium molybdenum steel

40 Ni 2 Cr 1 M0 28


Hardened and tempered
Hardened and tempered



Hardened and tempered



Hardened and tempered



Hardened and tempered



201
248



229



444



225



7,000
9,000



8,000



15,400



9,000

Surface hardened steel

a) 0.4% carbon steel


b) 0.55% carbon steel


c) 0.55% carbon chromium steel


d) 1% chromium steel


e) 3% nickel steel


---


---


---


---


---




145 (core)
460 (case)

200(core)
520(case)

250 (core)
500(case)

500 (case)


200 (core)
300 (case)


5,512


7,086


8,661


7,086


7,086
Case hardened steel

a) 0.12 to 0.22% carbon


b) 3% nickel steel


c) 5% nickel steel




---


---


---






650 (case)


200 (core)
600 (case)

250 (core)
600 (case)




5,039


7,086


8,661

Phosphor bronze castings

Sand cast

Chill cast

Centrifugal cast
60 min.

70 min.

90
1,600

2,400

2,600

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